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University of Maryland
Sample size: 3081
Field period: 3/26/2013-09/6/2013
1. How do interpretations of mothers in the workplace vary by their race/ethnicity?
2. How do interpretations of mothers in the workplace vary by their level of involvement with their children?
3. How do interpretations of mothers in the workplace vary the interaction between their race and involvement?
4. How do interpretations of mothers in the workplace vary by the characteristics of the perceivers, including their gender, parental status, and race?
Applicant's race (African-American, Latina, Asian, white)
Applicant's level of involvement with children (childless, nominal mother, less involved mother, highly involved mother)
Ratings of how hardworking, likable, and committed the applicant was expected to be, along with anticipated number of late days, the likelihood that the applicant would be hired, and a starting salary offer.
Consistent with existing motherhood penalty studies, I found that highly involved mothers were rated as less hirable than childless women, after accounting for a protective likability factor. I did not, however, find that mothers identified as less involved with their children were evaluated any more favorably than either the childless or highly involved mother applicants. These patterns varied by race. Highly involved white mothers were evaluated least favorably, whereas Asian mothers were evaluated most favorably.
Denny, Kathleen. Dissertation Chapter. "Workplace Evaluations of Parents by Race: Unraveling Perceptual Penalties and Premiums." Preparing for journal submission.